High-intensity focused ultrasound for heating a target zone larger than the electronic focusing zone

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  • Publication Date:
    September 14, 2021
  • Additional Information
    • Patent Number:
      11116,405
    • Appl. No:
      14/390181
    • Application Filed:
      April 09, 2013
    • Abstract:
      The invention provides for a medical instrument (200) comprising a magnetic resonance imaging system (202) and a high-intensity focused ultrasound system (204) with an electronically controllable and a mechanically controllable focus. Execution of instructions by a processor (244) controlling the instrument cause the processor to: receive (100) a target zone (240, 264) descriptive of a zone within the subject; divide (102) the target zone into multiple sub-zones (416, 418, 420, 422, 424, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434); determine (104) a sequence (272) for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones; determine (106) a selected sub-zone selected from the multiple sub-zones using the sequence; repeatedly control (108) the mechanical positioning system to move the transducer to the transducer position of the selected sub-zone; repeatedly acquire (110) the magnetic resonance thermometry data; repeatedly determine (112) a temperature property map (274); repeatedly heat (114) the regions independently to the target temperature by controlling the electronically controlled focus with a temperature feedback algorithm (286); and repeatedly change (116) the selected sub-zone using the sequence.
    • Inventors:
      Profound Medical Inc. (Mississauga, CA); THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH, OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER (Bethesda, MD, US)
    • Claim:
      1. A medical instrument comprising: a magnetic resonance imaging system that acquires magnetic resonance thermometry data from a subject within an imaging zone; a high-intensity focused ultrasound system comprising: an ultrasound transducer with an electronically-controlled focus, the electronically-controlled focus being adjustable within a focusing zone; and a mechanical positioning system that positions the ultrasound transducer to set a location of the focusing zone; a memory for storing machine executable instructions; a processor for controlling the medical instrument, wherein execution of the instructions causes the processor to: receive a target zone descriptive of a volume within the subject, wherein the target zone is larger than the focusing zone; divide the target zone into multiple sub-zones, wherein each of the multiple sub-zones has a corresponding transducer position, and when the ultrasound transducer is at the corresponding transducer position: (1) the sub-zone is fully disposed within the focusing zone and (2) the sub-zone can be treated using the electronically-controlled focus alone; determine a sequence for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided; determine a selected sub-zone selected from the multiple sub-zones using the sequence, wherein each of the sub-zones is divided into regions; wherein execution of the instructions further cause the processor to maintain the target zone at a target temperature for a predetermined time duration by repeatedly: controlling the mechanical positioning system to move the ultrasound transducer to the corresponding transducer position of the selected sub-zone; acquiring the magnetic resonance thermometry data, wherein the magnetic resonance thermometry data is descriptive of a temperature of voxels in the sub-zone; determining a temperature property map descriptive of the temperature in each of the voxels using at least the magnetic resonance thermometry data; heating the regions of the sub-zone independently to the target temperature by controlling the electronically-controlled focus with a temperature feedback algorithm that uses the temperature property map; and changing the selected sub-zone using the sequence; wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to: after start of said heating, determine a temperature property: (i) for each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided (ii) using the magnetic resonance thermometry data; after said determine a temperature property after said start of said heating, select a next sub-zone: (i) from the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided (ii) using the temperature property for each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided; and after said select a next sub-zone from the multiple sub-zones after said determine a temperature property after said start of said heating, modify the sequence for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided such that said next sub-zone: (i) which was selected from the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided (ii) is sequentially next in the sequence; and wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to repeatedly calculate perfusion coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for each of the voxels using magnetic resonance data.
    • Claim:
      2. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to control the mechanical positioning system to move the ultrasound transducer to the corresponding transducer position for each of the multiple sub-zones before heating the target zone to the target temperature.
    • Claim:
      3. The medical instrument of claim 2 , wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to acquire calibration magnetic resonance thermometry data while at the corresponding transducer position for each of the multiple sub-zones before heating the target zone to the target temperature, and wherein the temperature property map is determined using at least the calibration magnetic resonance data.
    • Claim:
      4. The medical instrument of claim 2 , wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to: perform a test ultrasound exposure using the high-intensity focused ultrasound system while at the corresponding transducer position for each of two or more of the multiple sub-zones before heating the target zone to the target temperature; and determine an electronic focus correction for each of the multiple sub-zones and/or adjust the location of the focusing zone for each of the two or more of the multiple sub-zones and/or calculate a temperature rise rate for each of the multiple sub-zones.
    • Claim:
      5. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein the temperature feedback control algorithm has temperature control algorithm parameters, wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to repeatedly recalculate the temperature control algorithm parameters using the perfusion coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients.
    • Claim:
      6. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein the temperature feedback control algorithm is any one of the following: a binary temperature control algorithm, a proportional temperature control algorithm, a proportional-integral temperature control algorithm, or a proportional-integral-derivative temperature control algorithm.
    • Claim:
      7. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein the target zone is divided into the multiple sub-zones using a medial axial transformation.
    • Claim:
      8. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein the medical instrument comprises a fluid cooling system that circulates a fluid for cooling the subject, wherein the fluid cooling system is operable for maintaining the fluid at an operating temperature, wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to: repeatedly acquire magnetic resonance data descriptive of the spin phase of the fluid to determine a change in the spin phase; and correct the temperature property map using the change in the spin phase of the fluid.
    • Claim:
      9. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to adjust the size and/or location of the sub- zones and or the transducer position after starting to maintain the target zone at target temperature.
    • Claim:
      10. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein heating the regions of the sub-zone comprises generating ultrasound using the ultrasound transducer and execution of the instructions further causes the processor to generate the ultrasound while changing the selected sub-zone.
    • Claim:
      11. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein a decision tree algorithm is used to initiate changing the selected sub-zone.
    • Claim:
      12. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein the target temperature is any one of the following: between 38° C. and 40° C., between 39° C. and 40° C., between 40 and 45 degrees Celsius, between 40 and 44 degrees Celsius, between 40 and 43 degrees Celsius, between 40 and 42 degrees Celsius, between 40 and 41 degrees Celsius, between 41 and 45 degrees Celsius, between 41 and 44 degrees Celsius, between 41 and 43 degrees Celsius, between 41 and 42 degrees Celsius, between 42 and 45 degrees Celsius, between 42 and 44 degrees Celsius, between 42 and 43 degrees Celsius, between 43 and 45 degrees Celsius, between 43 and 44 degrees Celsius, between 44 and 45 degrees Celsius, between 38 and 39 degrees Celsius, between 52 and 55 degrees Celsius, greater than or equal to 55 degrees Celsius, and between 50 and 55 degrees Celsius.
    • Claim:
      13. The medical instrument of claim 1 , wherein the sequence for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones is based on an average temperature of each sub-zone.
    • Claim:
      14. The medical instrument of claim 13 , wherein the selected sub-zone has a lowest average temperature of each sub-zone.
    • Claim:
      15. A computer program product comprising a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium that stores machine executable instructions for execution by a processor controlling a medical instrument wherein execution of the instructions causes the processor to: receive a target zone descriptive of a volume within a subject, wherein the target zone is larger than a focusing zone of an ultrasound transducer in a high-intensity focused ultrasound system, the ultrasound transducer having an electronically-controlled focus that is adjustable within the focusing zone; divide the target zone into multiple sub-zones, wherein each of the multiple sub-zones has a corresponding transducer position, and when the ultrasound transducer is at the corresponding transducer position: (1) the sub-zone is fully disposed within the focusing zone and (2) the sub-zone can be treated using the electronically-controlled focus alone, wherein each sub-zone is divided into regions; determine a sequence for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided; determine a selected sub-zone selected from the multiple sub-zones using the sequence; wherein execution of the instructions further cause the processor to maintain the target zone at a target temperature for a predetermined time duration by repeatedly: controlling a mechanical positioning system to move the ultrasound transducer to the corresponding transducer position of the selected sub-zone; acquiring magnetic resonance thermometry data from the subject within an imaging zone using a magnetic resonance imaging system, wherein the magnetic resonance thermometry data is descriptive of a temperature of voxels in the sub-zone; determining a temperature property map descriptive of the temperature in each of the voxels using at least the magnetic resonance thermometry data; heating each region independently to the target temperature by controlling the electronically-controlled focus with a temperature feedback algorithm that uses the temperature property map; and changing the selected sub-zone using the sequence; wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to: after start of said heating, determine a temperature property: (i) for each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided (ii) using the magnetic resonance thermometry data; after said determine a temperature property after said start of said heating, select a next sub-zone: (i) from the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided (ii) using the temperature property for each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided; and after said select a next sub-zone from the multiple sub-zones after said determine a temperature property after said start of said heating, modify the sequence for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided such that said next sub-zone: (i) which was selected from the multiple sub-zones into which the target zone was divided (ii) is sequentially next in the sequence; and wherein execution of the instructions further causes the processor to repeatedly calculate perfusion coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for each of the voxels using magnetic resonance data.
    • Claim:
      16. The computer program product of claim 15 , wherein the sequence for moving the transducer position to each of the multiple sub-zones is based on an average temperature of each sub-zone.
    • Claim:
      17. The computer program product of claim 16 , wherein the selected sub-zone has a lowest average temperature of each sub-zone.
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    • Assistant Examiner:
      Bor, Helene
    • Primary Examiner:
      Akar, Serkan
    • Attorney, Agent or Firm:
      Intrinsic Law Corp.
    • Accession Number:
      edspgr.11116405