Background: Primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma (PRPLS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the retroperitoneum with high recurrence rate and short overall survival (OS).Methods: A retrospective review of 51 patients with PRPLS, treated between September 1, 2009 and November 30, 2020, was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes of PRPLS resection. Patient demographics, histopathologic subtypes, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease recurrence rate, and tumor stage were reviewed and analyzed. Univariate analysis was done to identify factors potentially affecting OS and PFS of PRPLS patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to evaluate the impact of various clinicopathological factors on OS and PFS of PRPLS patients.Results: Fifty-one PRPLS patients (28 Males, 23 Females; mean age 56.25 years) were evaluated. There was no significant effect of age, gender, contiguous organ resection, degree of differentiation and tumor size on the OS and PFS of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that negative surgical margin and early tumor stage significantly correlated with OS and PFS (all P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.177, P = 0.001] was an independent predictors of poor progression-free survival, and surgical margins [HR = 4.0674 P = 0.038] and tumor stage [HR = 1.167 P = 0.001] were identified as independent predictors of poor overall survival.Conclusion: Negative surgical margin is a prognostic factor of OS, and can prolong the postoperative survival time of PRPLS patients. Tumor stage is a prognostic factor for OS and PFS, and can influence the survival of PRPLS patients. Earlier tumor stages of PRPLS are associated with significantly better outcomes.