The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case.

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  • Author(s): SENZON, SIMON A.; MYERS, STEPHEN P.
  • Source:
    Chiropractic History (CHIROPRACT HIST), Summer2019; 39(1): 42-116. (74p)
  • Publication Type:
    Article
  • Language:
    English
  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Institute Chiropractic, Foundation for Vertebral Subluxation, School of Health and Huntan Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia
      NatMed Research Unit and National Centre lor Naturopathic Medicine, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: The Morikubo trial of 1907 has been viewed as the point in history when chiropractic was first seen to be a profession in its own right. Unfortunately, no court transcript survives which outlines the trial. Given the importance of the trial, this paper sets out to comprehensively report all available primary sources to determine the most likely facts in this landmark case. Methods: Online repositories and gray literature were searched for primary sources. Content analysis of primary source documents was undertaken. Data was extracted, coded, and categorized from every primary source document about the trial that could be located in an intensive search as well as documents establishing the context of the trial dating between 1872 to 1909. The greater the number of independent references for each fact was considered to demonstrate greater likelihood of being a true representation of what occurred. Results: The search found 190 primary sources. A timeline of the trial was established. Several themes were categorized from the data. Morikubo sought out the conflict to test the law. The philosophy and principles of chiropractic played a significant role in the defense as did the distinct practices and scientific theories of chiropractic, all of which were established in the decade leading up to the trial. The conflict between the early osteopaths and the chiropractors focused on Wisconsin because of its law licensing osteopaths. Morikubo was well-educated. There is no evidence that Solon Langworthy, a 1901 graduate of D.D. Palmer's chiropractic school, played a role in the defense's arguments, nor were his theories included in the early models at the Palmer School before or after the trial. Conclusion: Chiropractic was determined in the trial to be separate from osteopathy, with its own scientific rationale, clinical practice, and philosophical perspective. Decades of incorrect facts from chiropractic and academic sources referencing the trial has led to unwarranted assertions and claims in the literature. Based on this analysis a reexamination of the chiropractic literature is warranted. This evidenced-based approach establishes a new perspective on the history, the theory, and the practice of chiropractic.
    • Journal Subset:
      Alternative/Complementary Therapies; Peer Reviewed; USA
    • ISSN:
      0736-4377
    • MEDLINE Info:
      NLM UID: 8213054
    • Publication Date:
      20190713
    • Publication Date:
      20190713
    • Accession Number:
      137423987
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      SENZON, S. A.; MYERS, S. P. The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case. Chiropractic History, [s. l.], v. 39, n. 1, p. 42–116, 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 18 nov. 2019.
    • AMA:
      SENZON SA, MYERS SP. The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case. Chiropractic History. 2019;39(1):42-116. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580. Accessed November 18, 2019.
    • APA:
      SENZON, S. A., & MYERS, S. P. (2019). The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case. Chiropractic History, 39(1), 42–116. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      SENZON, SIMON A., and STEPHEN P. MYERS. 2019. “The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case.” Chiropractic History 39 (1): 42–116. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580.
    • Harvard:
      SENZON, S. A. and MYERS, S. P. (2019) ‘The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case’, Chiropractic History, 39(1), pp. 42–116. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580 (Accessed: 18 November 2019).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      SENZON, SA & MYERS, SP 2019, ‘The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case’, Chiropractic History, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 42–116, viewed 18 November 2019, .
    • MLA:
      SENZON, SIMON A., and STEPHEN P. MYERS. “The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case.” Chiropractic History, vol. 39, no. 1, Summer 2019, pp. 42–116. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      SENZON, SIMON A., and STEPHEN P. MYERS. “The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case.” Chiropractic History 39, no. 1 (Summer 2019): 42–116. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      SENZON SA, MYERS SP. The Morikubo Trial: Content Analysis of a Landmark Chiropractic Legal Case. Chiropractic History [Internet]. 2019 Summer [cited 2019 Nov 18];39(1):42–116. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=137423987&custid=s6224580