Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness.

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      USDA¿Agricultural Research Service, Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA
      Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA
      Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. Objectives: We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected groundwater to acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence. Methods: AGI incidence was estimated from health diaries completed weekly by households within each study community during four 12-week periods. Water samples were collected monthly from five to eight households per community. Viruses were measured by qPCR, and infectivity assessed by cell culture. AGI incidence was related to virus measures using Poisson regression with random effects. Results: Communities and time periods with the highest virus measures had correspondingly high AGI incidence. This association was particularly strong for norovirus genogroup I (NoV-GI) and between adult AGI and enteroviruses when echovirus serotypes predominated. At mean concentrations of 1 and 0.8 genomic copies/L of NoV-GI and enteroviruses, respectively, the AGI incidence rate ratios (i.e., relative risk) increased by 30%. Adenoviruses were common, but tap-water concentrations were low and not positively associated with AGI. The estimated fraction of AGI attributable to tap-water-borne viruses was between 6% and 22%, depending on the virus exposure-AGI incidence model selected, and could have been as high as 63% among children < 5 years of age during the period when NoV-GI was abundant in drinking water. Conclusions: The majority of groundwater-source public water systems in the United States produce water without disinfection, and our findings suggest that populations served by such systems may be exposed to waterborne viruses and consequent health risks.
    • Journal Subset:
      Blind Peer Reviewed; Editorial Board Reviewed; Peer Reviewed; Public Health; USA
    • Special Interest:
      Public Health
    • ISSN:
      0091-6765
    • MEDLINE Info:
      PMID: NLM22659405 NLM UID: 0330411
    • Grant Information:
      This study is part of the Wisconsin Water And Health Trial for Enteric Risks (WAHTER) study, funded by U.S. EPA STAR Grant R831630.
    • Publication Date:
      20120914
    • Publication Date:
      20150711
    • Accession Number:
      http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104499
    • Accession Number:
      104505946
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      BORCHARDT, M. A. et al. Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness. Environmental Health Perspectives, [s. l.], v. 120, n. 9, p. 1272–1279, 2012. DOI 10.1289/ehp.1104499. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=104505946&custid=s6224580. Acesso em: 22 jan. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Borchardt MA, Spencer SK, Kieke Jr. BA, Lambertini E, Loge FJ. Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012;120(9):1272-1279. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104499.
    • APA:
      Borchardt, M. A., Spencer, S. K., Kieke Jr., B. A., Lambertini, E., & Loge, F. J. (2012). Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(9), 1272–1279. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104499
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Borchardt, Mark A., Susan K. Spencer, Burney A. Kieke Jr., Elisabetta Lambertini, and Frank J. Loge. 2012. “Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness.” Environmental Health Perspectives 120 (9): 1272–79. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104499.
    • Harvard:
      Borchardt, M. A. et al. (2012) ‘Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(9), pp. 1272–1279. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104499.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Borchardt, MA, Spencer, SK, Kieke Jr., BA, Lambertini, E & Loge, FJ 2012, ‘Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness’, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 1272–1279, viewed 22 January 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Borchardt, Mark A., et al. “Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness.” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 120, no. 9, Sept. 2012, pp. 1272–1279. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1289/ehp.1104499.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Borchardt, Mark A., Susan K. Spencer, Burney A. Kieke Jr., Elisabetta Lambertini, and Frank J. Loge. “Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness.” Environmental Health Perspectives 120, no. 9 (September 2012): 1272–79. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104499.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Borchardt MA, Spencer SK, Kieke Jr. BA, Lambertini E, Loge FJ. Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness. Environmental Health Perspectives [Internet]. 2012 Sep [cited 2020 Jan 22];120(9):1272–9. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=104505946&custid=s6224580