Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families.

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  • Additional Information
    • Abstract:
      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1Departments of Reproductive Medicine and Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0674
      2Dept. of Biotech and Food Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel
      3Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, 37 Convent Dr., Bldg. 37, Rm. 3E-24, Bethesda, MD 20892
      4Department of Psychiatry and Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 9414-0984
      5Unite de Genetique Moleculaire de la Morphogenese, Institut Pasteur, URA 2578 du CNRS, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    • ISSN:
      0021-9258
    • Accession Number:
      10.1074/jbc.M502004200
    • Accession Number:
      17141170
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      GIVENS, M. L. et al. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families. Journal of Biological Chemistry, [s. l.], v. 280, n. 19, p. 19156–19165, 2005. DOI 10.1074/jbc.M502004200. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=a9h&AN=17141170&custid=s6224580. Acesso em: 31 maio. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Givens ML, Rave-Harel N, Goonewardena VD, et al. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005;280(19):19156-19165. doi:10.1074/jbc.M502004200.
    • APA:
      Givens, M. L., Rave-Harel, N., Goonewardena, V. D., Kurotani, R., Berdy, S. E., Swan, C. H., Rubenstein, J. L. R., Robert, B., & Mellon, P. L. (2005). Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280(19), 19156–19165. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M502004200
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Givens, Marjory L., Naama Rave-Harel, Vinodha D. Goonewardena, Reiko Kurotani, Sara E. Berdy, Christo H. Swan, John L. R. Rubenstein, Benoit Robert, and Pamela L. Mellon. 2005. “Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 280 (19): 19156–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M502004200.
    • Harvard:
      Givens, M. L. et al. (2005) ‘Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families’, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280(19), pp. 19156–19165. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M502004200.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Givens, ML, Rave-Harel, N, Goonewardena, VD, Kurotani, R, Berdy, SE, Swan, CH, Rubenstein, JLR, Robert, B & Mellon, PL 2005, ‘Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families’, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 19, pp. 19156–19165, viewed 31 May 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Givens, Marjory L., et al. “Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families.” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 19, May 2005, pp. 19156–19165. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1074/jbc.M502004200.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Givens, Marjory L., Naama Rave-Harel, Vinodha D. Goonewardena, Reiko Kurotani, Sara E. Berdy, Christo H. Swan, John L. R. Rubenstein, Benoit Robert, and Pamela L. Mellon. “Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 280, no. 19 (May 13, 2005): 19156–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M502004200.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Givens ML, Rave-Harel N, Goonewardena VD, Kurotani R, Berdy SE, Swan CH, et al. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families. Journal of Biological Chemistry [Internet]. 2005 May 13 [cited 2020 May 31];280(19):19156–65. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=a9h&AN=17141170&custid=s6224580